If I have to focus my study on a particular artifact, I would choose to study the Terracotta Warriors and Horses in China to determine why they were built.
When I first learned about the Terracotta Warriors and Horses in the history class, I was amazed by the advance skills and technologies that China had back in the day (over 2200 years ago). I believe the study can bring insights to the culture, technology, history, quality of life, and stories behind the creation.
This research may have to involve wide variety of specialists from different disciplines, such as archaeologist, historian, scientist, etc., in order to fully understand different aspects of the results. Given the historic value of these artifacts, it is highly unlikely that physical tests can be conducted to gather information, which may prevent me from obtaining a comprehensive result.
My research may lead to a bigger question of whether Qin Shi Huang Di was doing a good thing or bad thing to the people in China by building the Terracotta Warriors and horses. Although he employed massive resources to build these artifacts during his time, people are enjoying the economic benefits from tourism today.